Statutory and Policy Bases
How to Search for Alternatives
- Resources in Animal Alternatives (UCLA Biomedical Library)
- Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ATLA) Journal (Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments - FRAME)
- Searching for Alternatives to Painful Procedures Used on Research Animals (NIH Library March 2002 Tipsheet)
- Tips for Searching for Alternatives to Animal Research and Testing (USDA Animal Welfare Information Center - AWIC)
- Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for All Laboratory Animals
- Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC), US Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library
Provides information for improved animal care and use in research, teaching, and testing.
- Alternatives to Animal Testing Website (Altweb)
Site maintained by the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT); provides news, information, discussion, and resources from the field of alternatives to animal testing.
- European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM)
International reference center for the development, scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative testing methods aimed at replacing, reducing or refining the use of laboratory animals and to be applied in different fields in the biomedical sciences.
- Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME)
FRAME is dedicated to the development of new and valid methods that will replace the need for laboratory animals in medical and scientific research, education, and testing.
- The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM)
Consists of representatives from 14 federal agencies; responsible for coordinating the development and review of various alternative toxicological methods.
- Validation and Regulatory Acceptance of Toxicological Test Methods - A Report of the ad hoc Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods, National Institutes of Health, March 1997, NIH Publication No. 97-3981
- The Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (NORINA)
Audiovisual alternatives to the use of animals in teaching.
- Recognizing Pain in Laboratory Animals, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research
- Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ATLA)
Published 6 times per year by the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME); provides information on development, validation, introduction and use of alternatives to laboratory animals in biomedical research and toxicity testing.
- Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin (AWIC Bulletin)
Published by the US Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Library (NAL); provides information on animal welfare to investigators, technicians, administrators, exhibitors, and the public.
- Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC): Guidelines on Choosing an Appropriate Endpoint in Experiments Using Animals for Research, Teaching and Testing
- European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods Reports (ECVAM Reports)
- Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Journal (ILAR Journal)
Quarterly, peer-reviewed publication of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR); provides information for all those who use, care for, and oversee the use of laboratory animals, including investigators in biomedical and related research, institutional officials for research, veterinarians, and members of animal care and use committees.
- Laboratory Animals
Published quarterly for Laboratory Animals Ltd by Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd to promote education and training in laboratory animal science, technology, and welfare.
- The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, WMS Russell and RL Burch, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), 1992
Originally published in 1959, this book reports the results of the UFAW-sponsored research on ethical laboratory techniques and expounds the principles of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement).
Page Last Updated: December 13, 2013